• The incidence of thiamin deficiency ranges from 13% to 93% in patients with HF, & is more severe in elderly patients with NYHA functional class III/IV

  • Thiamin increases LVEF BY 22% in Patients with long term Furosemide Therapy, as latter is known deplelatory of Thiamin

  • Thiamin deficeincy can induce high output cardiac failure due to the accumulation of pyruvate & lactate

  • Thiamin administration for 1 month significantly decreased glucose & leptin concentrations in drug-native patients with T2DM.

  • Low plasma thiamin concentration is prevalent in patients with type I & TYPE II diabetes, associated with increased thiamin clearance

  • High dose thiamin therapy restores the faulty Pentose Phosphate Pathway in hyperglycaemia, thus prevents multiple mechanisms of biochemical dysfunction and hence the development of incipent diabetic nephropathy,neuropathy & retinopathy were prevented

  • Thiamin prevents hyperglycemias induced mitochondrial overproduction of ROS by all major pathways of diabetic cellular damage via transketolase activation